Behavioral Modification for Cats that Urinate Inappropriately
Courtesy of Veterinary Medical Diets
Try and determine if the cat has recently experienced a recent stress in its life. "Stressors" could include changes in the weather, the cat's environment (a recent move, addition of a new pet or family member), change in diet or feeding schedule, change of litter type, etc.
Provide at least one more litter box than cats in the household.
Keep the litter boxes in "quiet" areas of the home (avoid "high-noise" or "high-traffic" areas). Try placing one litter box in a spare room for the affected cat (a room that other cats/pets in the household do not have access too).
Do not use covered litterboxes.
Use unscented, fine-grained type litters (different cats like different litter types).
Change the litter frequently.
Keep food and water bowls in a quiet area of the home, away from windows, heat vents, exhaust fans, etc. Keep the food and water bowls away from the litter box location.
Allow the problematic cat more space and a chance to be a "cat". Don't forget; cats are independent creatures that like to be in control. It would be great if the cat could have its own room complete with scratch post, food and water bowls, and litter box. Provide toys that allow the cat to chase and catch, and adequate surfaces for scratching behaviour.
Make any changes in the cat's routine, including diet changes, very slowly.
There are sprays that your veterinarian may recommend in an attempt to decrease "environmental anxiety". Such sprays can be used in the environment close to the litter box, close to food and water bowls, in areas where the cat likes to "hang-out".
Your veterinarian may recommend drugs in highly stressed cats.